Natural Calamities are not uncommon to human beings. Human history is evidence of destruction and fatalities, caused by natural disasters. Earthquakes, flooding, thunderstorms, and pandemics are some examples of natural disasters. Usually, disasters can’t be predicted. So, they cause huge harm to people and cities. Here we will discuss, how architects make buildings earthquake-proof.
Seismically, Pakistan is considered an active area in the region as it is located at the junction of three plate boundaries. It has seen several devastating earthquakes that caused the loss of precious lives and structures. As earthquakes cannot be predicted and Pakistan is prone to this danger. So, there is a dire need to take strict measures to limit the destruction if they occur.
In this blog, we will find out how architects make buildings earthquake-proof.
With the advancement in human life, humans are able to secure and protect their lives. It would not be right if we say that they have full control over their destinies. But still, human beings enabled themselves to reduce threats to their lives. For example, in this case, humans are constructing earthquake-proof buildings to make their societies more resilient and curtail the risks. Engineers and architects have designed strategies to make our structures and buildings earthquake-proof.
Following are a few strategies that architects use to make buildings earthquake-proof
- Strong and Flexible Foundation
- The use of counterforces
- Structural Strengthening
- Earthquake Resistant Material
Strong and Flexible Foundation
A strong foundation keeps the building withstand earthquakes or any other disaster. In seismic active areas, the soil is inspected properly. Further, flexible pads are also used to isolate the foundation of a building from the ground. The base isolation method is usually practiced. In this process, a particular building’s foundation is built on flexible pads. Flexible pads might be of steel, rubber, or lead. These flexible pads prevent the demolition of a structure and keep the structure in a steady position, in case of any incident.
The Use of Counter Forces
Like shock absorbers used in vehicles to reduce shockwaves. This method is also practiced in construction to reduce the magnitude of shockwaves. Vibrational control devices and pendulum power methods are used. In the vibrational control device method, dampers consisting of the piston are placed at each level of a building between beams and columns. In pendulum power, a large ball, steel cables, and a hydraulic system are used to dissipate the seismic waves.
In seismic active areas, additional materials such as steel or concrete are used to strengthen the foundation and make the structure more resilient. Additional material adds stiffness and strength to structures.
Earthquake Resistant Materials
The use of ductile material is also common in modern construction. Structural steel and wood allow material to bend without any smash or destruction. Further, research is being carried out to develop more productive strategies for example the use of memory alloy that, in the first place, reduces cramps and secondly revert the structure to its originality.
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Although numerous structures are earthquake-proof structures around the globe. Taipei in Taiwan, Shanghai Tower in Shanghai, China, Mori Tower in Tokyo, Japan, New Wilshire Grand Center in California, Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, Turkey, and Burj Khalifa, UAE, are among the renowned earthquake-proof buildings.
10% of the world’s active volcanoes are present in Japan which makes it more vulnerable to earthquakes. Japan is utilizing modern technologies and strategies to make its buildings earthquake-proof and has been quite successful in coping with deadly earthquakes.
Earthquakes can be expected at any time and there is not any method to predict their occurrence and so is the damage caused by earthquakes. So, in order to curtail or limit the destruction, engineers, and architects innovated numerous methods to reduce the damages and make structures withstand shocks. These methods are being used to make buildings more resilient to earthquakes.